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MKB Lease, altijd duidelijk De leasemaatschappij die uitblinkt in hoogwaardig, duurzaam en kostenbewust wagenparkbeheer. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in Allied with Japan in World War II , it was subjected to Allied bombing , but rapidly grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment.
Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok; its population surged from 1.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in , Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, and the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok.
In the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed. The city in its current form was created in with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration BMA , following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year.
The full name reads as follows: The name, composed of Pali and Sanskrit root words, translates as:. Most Thais who recall the full name do so because of its use in a popular song, "Krung Thep Maha Nakhon" by Asanee—Wasan and will often recount it by singing it, [ citation needed ] much as an English speaker might sing the alphabet song to recite the alphabet.
The entirety of the lyrics is just the name of the city repeated over and over. The city is now officially known in Thai by a shortened form of the full ceremonial name, Krung Thep Maha Nakhon , which is colloquially further shortened to Krung Thep.
Although its boundaries are at the provincial changwat level, unlike the other 76 provinces Bangkok is a special administrative area whose governor is directly elected to serve a four-year term.
The governor, together with four appointed deputies, form the executive body, who implement policies through the BMA civil service headed by the Permanent Secretary for the BMA.
In separate elections, each district elects one or more city councillors, who form the Bangkok Metropolitan Council.
The current Bangkok Governor is Police General Aswin Kwanmuang , who was appointed by the military government on 26 October  following the suspension of the last elected governor M.
Bangkok is divided into fifty districts khet , equivalent to amphoe in the other provinces , which are further subdivided into sub-districts khwaeng , equivalent to tambon.
Each district is managed by a district director appointed by the governor. District councils, elected to four-year terms, serve as advisory bodies to their respective district directors.
The BMA has the authority to implement local ordinances, although civil law enforcement falls under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Police Bureau.
The seal of the city shows Hindu god Indra riding in the clouds on Airavata , a divine white elephant known in Thai as Erawan.
In his hand Indra holds his weapon, the vajra. The tree symbol of Bangkok is Ficus benjamina. As the capital of Thailand, Bangkok is the seat of all branches of the national government.
Bangkok is the site of the Grand Palace and Chitralada Villa , respectively the official and de facto residence of the king.
Most government ministries also have headquarters and offices in the capital. Bangkok city proper covers an area of 1, With the exception of Chachoengsao, these provinces, together with Bangkok, form the greater Bangkok Metropolitan Region.
The area is flat and low-lying, with an average elevation of 1. The course of the river as it flows through Bangkok has been modified by the construction of several shortcut canals.
Up until then, most people lived near or on the water, leading the city to be known during the 19th century as the " Venice of the East". Most canals are now badly polluted, although the BMA has committed to the treatment and cleaning up of several canals.
This feature has contributed to the effects of subsidence caused by extensive ground water pumping. First recognized in the s, subsidence soon became a critical issue, reaching a rate of millimetres 4.
Ground water management and mitigation measures have since lessened the severity of the situation, although subsidence is still occurring at a rate of 10 to 30 millimetres 0.
Subsidence has resulted in increased flood risk, as Bangkok is already prone to flooding due to its low elevation and an inadequate drainage infrastructure.
The city now relies on flood barriers and augmenting drainage from canals by pumping and building drain tunnels, but parts of Bangkok and its suburbs are still regularly inundated.
Heavy downpours resulting in urban runoff overwhelming drainage systems, and runoff discharge from upstream areas, are major triggering factors.
Global warming poses further serious risks, and a study by the OECD has estimated that 5. There are no mountains in Bangkok. The chedi collapsed during construction because the soft soil could not support its weight.
Over the next few decades, the abandoned mud-and-brick structure acquired the shape of a natural hill and became overgrown with weeds. It experiences three seasons: The rainy season begins with the arrival of the southwest monsoon around mid-May.
September is the wettest month, with an average rainfall of The rainy season lasts until October, when the dry and cool northeast monsoon takes over until February.
The hot season is generally dry, but also sees occasional summer storms. Thirty-five of these districts lie to the east of the Chao Phraya, while fifteen are on the western bank, known as the Thonburi side of the city.
The fifty districts, arranged by district code, are: The BMA uses several schemes to organize the districts into groups for administrative and general planning purposes.
The scheme adopted in used twelve characteristic groups. Although urban planning policies date back to the commission of the "Litchfield Plan" in , which set out strategies for land use, transportation and general infrastructure improvements, zoning regulations were not fully implemented until As a result, the city grew organically throughout the period of its rapid expansion, both horizontally as ribbon developments extended along newly built roads, and vertically, with increasing numbers of high rises and skyscrapers being built in commercial areas.
Nevertheless, large agricultural areas remain within the city proper at its eastern and western fringes. Land use in the city consists of 23 percent residential use, 24 percent agriculture, and 30 percent used for commerce, industry, and government.
It published master plan updates in and , and a third revision is undergoing public hearings in Phra Nakhon, along with the neighbouring Pom Prap Sattru Phai and Samphanthawong Districts, formed what was the city proper in the late 19th century.
Many traditional neighbourhoods and markets are found here, including the Chinese settlement of Sampheng. The buildings of the palace, including the neoclassical Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall , as well as the Royal Plaza and Ratchadamnoen Avenue which leads to it from the Grand Palace, reflect the heavy influence of European architecture at the time.
Major government offices line the avenue, as does the Democracy Monument. In contrast with the low-rise historic areas, the business district on Si Lom and Sathon Roads in Bang Rak and Sathon Districts teems with skyscrapers.
Numerous retail outlets and hotels also stretch along Sukhumvit Road leading southeast through Watthana and Khlong Toei Districts. More office towers line the streets branching off Sukhumvit, especially Asok Montri , while upmarket housing is found in many of its soi s.
Bangkok lacks a single distinct central business district. Ratchadaphisek is lined with businesses and retail outlets, and office buildings also cluster around Ratchayothin Intersection in Chatuchak District to the north.
Farther from the city centre, most areas are primarily mid- or low-density residential. The Thonburi side of the city is less developed, with fewer high rises.
With the exception of a few secondary urban centres, Thonburi, as well as the outlying eastern districts, consist mostly of residential and rural areas.
In there were over one million people living in about slum settlements. Bangkok has several parks, although these amount to a per capita total park area of only 1.
Total green space for the entire city is moderate, at In the more densely built-up areas of the city these numbers are as low as 1.
In Europe, London has The city of Bangkok has a population of 8,, according to the census, or Roughly half are internal migrants from other Thai provinces.
Migrants from neighbouring countries include , Burmese, 72, Cambodians and 52, Lao. British diplomat John Crawfurd , visiting in , estimated its population at no more than 50, This growth became even more pronounced in the s, following the discovery of antibiotics.
Although family planning and birth control were introduced in the s, the lowered birth rate was more than offset by increased migration from the provinces as economic expansion accelerated.
Thailand had long since become highly centralized around the capital. Their prominence subsequently declined as younger generations of Thai Chinese integrated and adopted a Thai identity.
Other religions include Islam 4. Apart from Yaowarat, Bangkok also has several other distinct ethnic neighbourhoods. Ban Khrua on Saen Saep Canal is home to descendants of the Cham who settled in the late 18th century.
Although the Portuguese who settled during the Thonburi period have ceased to exist as a distinct community, their past is reflected in Santa Cruz Church , on the west bank of the river.
Likewise, Assumption Cathedral on Charoen Krung Road is among many European-style buildings in the Old Farang Quarter, where European diplomats and merchants lived in the late 19th to early 20th centuries.
Nearby, the Haroon Mosque is the centre of a Muslim community. In , the city had an economic output of 3. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region had a combined output of 4.
It is followed by manufacturing Bangkok alone accounts for When the Bangkok Metropolitan Region is considered, manufacturing is the most significant contributor at A large number of multinational corporations base their regional headquarters in Bangkok due to the lower cost of labour and operations relative to other major Asian business centres.
Seventeen Thai companies are listed on the Forbes , all of which are based in the capital,  including PTT , the only Fortune Global company in Thailand.
Income inequality is a major issue in Bangkok, especially between relatively unskilled lower-income immigrants from rural provinces and neighbouring countries, and middle-class professionals and business elites.
Although absolute poverty rates are low—only 0. Of cities worldwide, MasterCard ranked Bangkok as the top destination city by international visitor arrivals in its Global Destination Cities Index , ahead of London, with just over 20 million overnight visitors in Domestic tourism is also prominent.
The Department of Tourism recorded 26,, Thai and 11,, foreign visitors to Bangkok in Lodgings were made by 15,, guests, who occupied Royal palaces and temples as well as several museums constitute its major historical and cultural tourist attractions.
Shopping and dining experiences offer a wide range of choices and prices. The city is also famous for its dynamic nightlife.
Shopping venues, many of which are popular with both tourists and locals, range from the shopping centres and department stores concentrated in Siam and Ratchaprasong to the sprawling Chatuchak Weekend Market.
Taling Chan Floating Market is among the few such markets in Bangkok. Yaowarat is known for its shops as well as street-side food stalls and restaurants, which are also found throughout the city.
Bangkok has a reputation overseas as a major destination in the sex industry. Although prostitution is technically illegal and is rarely openly discussed in Thailand, it commonly takes place among massage parlours, saunas and hourly hotels, serving foreign tourists as well as locals.
Bangkok has acquired the nickname "Sin City of Asia" for its level of sex tourism. Issues often encountered by foreign tourists include scams, overcharging and dual pricing.
In a survey of tourists visiting Thailand, 7. The city has long been the portal of entry of Western concepts and material goods, which have been adopted and blended with Thai values to various degrees by its residents.
This is most evident in the lifestyles of the expanding middle class. Conspicuous consumption serves as a display of economic and social status, and shopping centres are popular weekend hangouts.
Although such trends have spread to other urban centres, and, to a degree, the countryside, Bangkok remains at the forefront of social change.
A distinct feature of Bangkok is the ubiquity of street vendors selling goods ranging from food items to clothing and accessories. It has been estimated that the city may have over , hawkers.
While the BMA has authorised the practice in sites, the majority of activity in another sites takes place illegally. Nearly 15, vendors were evicted from 39 public areas in During Songkran on 13—15 April, traditional rituals as well as water fights take place throughout the city.
New Year celebrations take place at many venues, the most prominent being the plaza in front of CentralWorld. Observances related to the royal family are held primarily in Bangkok.
The Red Cross Fair at the beginning of April is held at Suan Amporn and the Royal Plaza, and features numerous booths offering goods, games and exhibits.
All national newspapers, broadcast media and major publishers are based in the capital. Its 21 national newspapers had a combined daily circulation of about two million in These include the mass-oriented Thai Rath , Khao Sod and Daily News , the first of which currently prints a million copies per day,  as well as the less sensational Matichon and Krungthep Thurakij.
With the exception of local news segments broadcast by the NBT, all programming is done in Bangkok and repeated throughout the provinces.
However, this centralised model is weakening with the rise of cable television, which has many local providers. There are numerous cable and satellite channels based in Bangkok.
TrueVisions is the major subscription television provider in Bangkok and Thailand, and it also carries international programming.
Likewise, Bangkok has dominated the Thai film industry since its inception. Although film settings normally feature locations throughout the country, the city is home to all major film studios.
Bangkok has dozens of cinemas and multiplexes , and the city hosts two major film festivals annually, the Bangkok International Film Festival and the World Film Festival of Bangkok.
Various communities throughout the city still practice their traditional crafts, including the production of khon masks, alms bowls, and classical musical instruments.
The National Gallery hosts permanent collection of traditional and modern art, with temporary contemporary exhibits. Private galleries gradually emerged to provide exposure for new artists, including the Patravadi Theatre and H Gallery.
The centrally located Bangkok Art and Culture Centre , opened in following a fifteen-year lobbying campaign, is now the largest public exhibition space in the city.
Khon and other traditional dances are regularly performed at the National Theatre and Salachalermkrung Royal Theatre , while the Thailand Cultural Centre is a newer multi-purpose venue which also hosts musicals, orchestras and other events.
Numerous venues regularly feature a variety of performances throughout the city. Modern Bangkok has developed a strong spectator sport culture.
While muay Thai kickboxing matches at Rajadamnern and Lumpini Stadiums are regularly broadcast on television, the sport has mostly been overtaken in popularity by association football.
In recent years, the Thai League has been gaining popularity. While sepak takraw can be seen played in open spaces throughout the city, especially by the working class, football and other modern sports are now more of the norm.
Western sports were introduced during the reign of King Chulalongkorn , and were originally only available to the privileged. Such status is still associated with certain sports.
Horse riding takes place in a couple of exclusive clubs in the city. Horse racing is very popular in Bangkok and betting on horses is legal.
There are two racecourses in Bangkok: There are many public sporting facilities located throughout Bangkok. The two main centres are the National Stadium complex, which dates to , and the newer Hua Mak Sports Complex , which was built for the Asian Games.
Bangkok had also hosted the games in , and ; the most of any city. Charoen Krung Road , the first to be built by Western techniques, was completed in Since then, the road network has vastly expanded to accommodate the sprawling city.
Older public transport systems include an extensive bus network and boat services which still operate on the Chao Phraya and two canals.
Taxis appear in the form of cars, motorcycles, and " tuk-tuk " auto rickshaws. Its centuries-old maritime transport of goods is still conducted through Khlong Toei Port.
The BMA is largely responsible for overseeing the construction and maintenance of the road network and transport systems through its Public Works Department and Traffic and Transportation Department.
However, many separate government agencies are also in charge of the individual systems, and much of transport-related policy planning and funding is contributed to by the national government.
Road-based transport is the primary mode of travel in Bangkok. Forty-eight major roads link the different areas of the city, branching into smaller streets and lanes soi which serve local neighbourhoods.
Eleven bridges over the Chao Phraya link the two sides of the city, while several expressway and motorway routes bring traffic into and out of the city centre and link with nearby provinces.
The extent of the problem is such that the Thai Traffic Police has a unit of officers trained in basic midwifery in order to assist deliveries which do not reach hospital in time.
Traffic has been the main source of air pollution in Bangkok, which reached serious levels in the s. But efforts to improve air quality by improving fuel quality and enforcing emission standards, among others, had visibly ameliorated the problem by the s.
Atmospheric particulate matter levels dropped from 81 micrograms per cubic metre in to 43 in Most of these bicycle lanes share the pavement with pedestrians.
Poor surface maintenance, encroachment by hawkers and street vendors, and a hostile environment for cyclists and pedestrians, make cycling and walking unpopular methods of getting around in Bangkok.
Bangkok has an extensive bus network providing local transit services within the Greater Bangkok area. Buses, minibus vans, and song thaeo operate on a total of routes throughout the region.
Known simply as the BRT , the system currently consists of a single line running from the business district at Sathon to Ratchaphruek on the western side of the city.
Taxis are ubiquitous in Bangkok, and are a popular form of transport. Motorcycle taxis operate from regulated ranks, with either fixed or negotiable fares, and are usually employed for relatively short journeys.
Since , registration has been required for motorcycle taxi ranks, and drivers now wear distinctive numbered vests designating their district of registration and where they are allowed to accept passengers.
In addition to long-distance services, the SRT also operates a few daily commuter trains running from and to the outskirts of the city during the rush hour.
Bangkok is currently served by three rapid transit systems: Although proposals for the development of rapid transit in Bangkok had been made since ,  it was only in that the BTS finally began operation.
Although initial passenger numbers were low and their service area remains limited to the inner city, these systems have become indispensable to many commuters.
As of [update] , construction work is ongoing to extend BTS and MRT, as well as several additional transit lines, including the Light Red grade-separated commuter rail line.
In addition to rapid transit and heavy rail lines, there have been proposals for several monorail systems. Although much diminished from its past prominence, water-based transport still plays an important role in Bangkok and the immediate upstream and downstream provinces.
Several water buses serve commuters daily. The Chao Phraya Express Boat serves thirty-four stops along the river, carrying an average of 35, passengers per day in , while the smaller Khlong Saen Saep boat service serves twenty-seven stops on Saen Saep Canal with 57, daily passengers.
Long-tail boats operate on fifteen regular routes on the Chao Phraya, and passenger ferries at thirty-two river crossings served an average of , daily passengers in It is primarily a cargo port, though its inland location limits access to ships of 12, deadweight tonnes or less.
Two commercial airports serve the city, the older Don Mueang International Airport and the new Bangkok International Airport, commonly known as Suvarnabhumi.
This volume exceeded its designed capacity of 45 million passengers. Don Mueang reopened for domestic flights in ,  and resumed international service focusing on low-cost carriers in October Bangkok has long been the centre of modern education in Thailand.
The first schools in the country were established here in the later 19th century, and there are now 1, schools in the city. Over the past few decades the general trend of pursuing a university degree has prompted the founding of new universities to meet the needs of Thai students.
Bangkok became not only a place where immigrants and provincial Thais go for job opportunities, but also for a chance to receive a university degree.
The demand for higher education has led to the founding of many other universities and colleges, both public and private. The situation is not limited to higher education, either.
In the s, 60 to 70 percent of to year-olds who were in school had migrated to Bangkok for secondary education.
This was due to both a lack of secondary schools in the provinces and perceived higher standards of education in the capital. In , Bangkok had Research-oriented medical school affiliates such as Siriraj , King Chulalongkorn Memorial and Ramathibodi Hospitals are among the largest in the country, and act as tertiary care centres , receiving referrals from distant parts of the country.
Lately, especially in the private sector, there has been much growth in medical tourism , with hospitals such as Bumrungrad and Bangkok Hospital , among others, providing services specifically catering to foreigners.
An estimated , medical tourists visited Thailand in , making Bangkok the most popular global destination for medical tourism.
Bangkok has a relatively moderate crime rate when compared to urban counterparts around the world. Although the crime threat in Bangkok is relatively low, non-confrontational crimes of opportunity such as pick-pocketing, purse-snatching, and credit card fraud occur with frequency.
The police have long been preoccupied with street crimes ranging from housebreaking to assault and murder. According to police statistics, the most common complaint received by the Metropolitan Police Bureau in was housebreaking, with 12, cases.
This was followed by 5, cases of motorcycle thefts, 3, cases of assault and 2, cases of embezzlement. Serious offences included murders, 81 gang robberies, robberies, 1 kidnapping and 9 arson cases.
Offences against the state were by far more common, and included 54, drug-related cases, 17, cases involving prostitution and 8, related to gambling.
Political demonstrations and protests are common in Bangkok.